The National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) and the Swedish Research Council (SRC) sponsored a workshop in Beijing on May 15-17, 2013 to promote the exchange and collaboration between the Chinese and Swedish antibiotics resistance research communities. About 20 scientists from the two countries participated in this event that addressed antibiotics and their use on humans and animals as well as the environmental impacts of antibiotics. The Institute of Materia Medica, the Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology of CAMS/PUMS hosted and organized the workshop.

Keynote speeches addressed “the task forces against bacterial infection in China” (Professor Jiandong Jiang from the Institute of Materia Medica of CAMS/PUMC) and “the global challenge of antibiotics resistance” (Professor Mate Erdelyi from the Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg). These talks were complemented by 16 shorter presentations by researchers from both countries.

The workshop discussions presented a large number of thoughts on antibiotics resistance policy. These included more rigorous antibiotic stewardship in Chinese hospitals and the need for evidence based interventions aiming to improve rational use of antibiotics targeting all levels of the healthcare system as well as the community and use in animals. Evaluation of interventions should take into account behavioural change theories. The socio-economic impact of antibiotic resistance was acknowledged, as well as the impact on the environment. In-depth studies on the mechanism for antimicrobial resistance are needed. Folk and traditional natural products from Traditional Chinese Medicine and medicinal herbs from Africa or India are valuable and largely untapped resources for antibiotics enhancer to reduce the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance.