I obtained my md in 1976 ( medical school of tours university (tours, france) and my ph. d. in microbiology in 1986 at the pharmacy school of university of paris 11 (chatenay-malabry, france). i am board certified in paediatrics, tropical medicine and microbiology. i have been further trained in epidemiology at the cdc (atlanta, ga) and have been a research fellow at suny (brooklyn, ny). from 1979 to 1996 i worked as clinical microbiologist at institut gustave-roussy, the major french cancer research and treatment centre. i was appointed professor of microbiology at the pharmacy school of university paris 11 (chatenay-malabry) from 1988 to 1996. since 1996 i am full professor of microbiology at university of paris7 medical school and head of the bacteriology laboratory of bichat-claude bernard university hospital, a major referral centre in infectious diseases in the paris area. the laboratory has hosted the french national reference center for bacterial resistance in commensal flora from 2004 to 2012. i serve as expert -witness at the national highest court of appeal, and am a member of the french scientific council for defence and have been a member of the scientific council for national defence from 2002 to 2012. i am a member of the who/agisar group since 2008.My research focuses on the role of commensal microbiota in the evolution of bacterial resistance to antibiotics and on how these microbiota cause nosocomial and community-acquired infections. I am author or co-author of more than 130 pubmed publications and i published a book for the general public in collaboration with the anthropologist michel tibon-cornillot (le triomphe des bactéries : la fin des antibiotiques? [the triumph of bacteria : the end of antibiotics ?] maxmilo editions paris 2007). I am inventor of several patents, some of which serve as scientific basis for a biotech company (davolterra) created under the hospices of the french law for innovation and research and developing anti bacterial resistance products currently in pre-clinical stage.