Joint Programming Initiative on Antimicrobial Resistance

Former Scientific Advisory Board Members

Antoine Andremont Faculté de médecine de l´Université Paris-DiderotFrance
Marc Bonten UMC UtrechtNetherlands
Yehuda Carmeli Harvard University, BostonUSA
Fernando Baquero University Hospital Ramón y Cajal and Complutense UniversitySpain
Stephan Harbarth Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève Switzerland
Niels Frimodt-Møller RigshosptaletDenmark
Hajo Grundmann RIVM, BilthovenNetherlands
Herman Goossens University of AntwerpNetherlands
Birgitta Henriques Normark Karolinska Institutet, StockholmSweden
Arnfinn Sundsfjord University of TromsøNorway
Timothy Walsh Cardiff UniversityUK
Paul Williams University of NottinghamUK
Athanassios Tsakris University of AthensGreece
Bruno Gonzales-Zorn Complutense UniversitySpain
Gunnar Skov Simonsen University of TromsøNorway
Jesús Rodriguez Baño Universidad de SevillaSpain
Jocelyn Arquembourg Université de la Sorbonne NouvelleFrance
Laura Piddock Institute of Microbiology and Infection, University of BirminghamUK
Mark Sobsey Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North CarolinaUSA
Petra Gastmeier Charité -University Medicine BerlinGermany
Teresa M Coque Ramón y Cajal Institute for BioHealth Research (IRYCIS)Spain
Richard Smith London School of Hygiene and Tropical MedicineUK

Richard Smith is Professor of Health System Economics, and Dean of the Faculty of Public Health and Policy, at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.  Following undergraduate and postgraduate studies in economics at the University of York in 1991, Richard worked in Sydney, Cambridge, Bristol, Melbourne and Norwich, before joining the London School in May 2007.
Richard has worked in a wide range of areas, applying micro-, macro-, behavioural-, and political-economics techniques.  Over the last decade he has focussed mostly upon two areas: (i) aspects related to macro-economics, especially developing macro-economic model methods concerning the impact of communicable (eg AMR, SARS, pandemic influenza and Ebola) and non-communicable (especially diet-related) diseases and related polices; and (ii) trade and trade agreements, both concerning the health sector (eg patient, professional and capital flows across countries) and wider areas related to health, such as food and agriculture products – much of this has been through involvement in the Leverhulme Centre for Integrative Research on Agriculture and Health.
Richard has received research funding in excess of £35m, for bodies including MRC, ESRC, BBSRC, NERC, Wellcome Trust and Leverhulme Trust, and has more than 200 publications.  He has editorial responsibilities for journals including Health Economics, Journal of Public Health and Globalization and Health, has been Chair of an ESRC Grant Advisory Panel for many years, and most recently has been on the cross-council AMR initiative steering group, Longitude Prize Committee and has been an expert advisor for numerous organisations, including WHO, WTO, World Bank, OECD and various countries.

Teresa Coque, PhD graduated as a Pharmacist (1986) and Clinical Biochemist (1989) and received her PhD in Medical Microbiology (1991) from the Complutensis University of Madrid (Spain). After a postdoctoral training at the Internal Medicine Department in the School of Medicine at the University of Texas at Houston in the USA (1993-1995) and the Center for Emerging and Reemerging Pathogens also at the University of Texas at Houston (1996-97), she returned to Spain in 1998.

Currently she is Senior Research Scientist at the Microbiology Department of the Ramón y Cajal University Hospital within the Division of Microbial Biology and Infections at the Ramón y Cajal Institute for BioHealth Research (IRYCIS) in Madrid (Spain), leading a research group focused on Population Biology of Human Bacterial Pathogens and their Mobile Genetic Elements.

Her special interests and expertise include molecular epidemiology, evolutionary biology, and microbial ecology, with emphasis in the genetic bases for transmission of antibiotic resistance and the adaptation of commensal and pathogenic Gram-negative and Gram positive bacteria to different hosts. Advanced genomics and metagenomics to be applied on diagnosis of antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens and as predictive markers of infection in the personalized medicine perspective is becoming a priority in the group. TMC has published more than 110 articles in refereed journals and 10 book chapters, and regularly participates in international events in the field of antibiotic resistance and plasmid biology. She is a leading investigator of research grants funded by national agencies since 1999 and has participated in different EU projects since 2001 (EVOTAR-F3-2011-282004; R-GNOSIS-282512; TROCAR-2009-223031; BIOHYPO-LSHM-CT-2007-037410; ACE-LSHM-CT-2005-0180705; DRESP-LSHM-CT-2005-518152, COBRA- QLK2-CT-2001-873). The group also participate in Spanish consolidated Networks at national (CIBER-ESP_ISCIII-MINECO, REDEEX_MINECO) and regional level (deResMicrobiana_CAM, PROMPT_CAM) working on different aspects of antibiotic resistance (epidemiology, public Health, biology of mobile genetic elements and system biology). TMC has directed seven doctoral thesis and coordinates research projects of students associated with the European programs Leonardo da Vinci (2000- 2008) and Erasmus (2007-) and several universities from Europe and South America. She is member of several international scientific committees and associations and regularly serves as a referee of different journals and evaluator of national and international research funded programs in the field of microbiology and infectious diseases.

Petra Gastmeier was certified as a specialist in Hygiene and Environmental Medicine in 1988. Following several years working as a senior physician at the Institute of Hygiene of the Free University Berlin she was appointed as an associate professor at Hanover Medical School and head of the Division of Hospital Epidemiology in 2000. Since 2008 she is head of the Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Charité -University Medicine Berlin. She is an expert on surveillance of nosocomial infections and antimicrobial resistance and has published more than 300 scientific papers and review articles in this field. She is coordinating the work of the German Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System (called KISS) with data from more than 1400 German hospitals. She is also responsible for the current German national hand hygiene campaign funded by the German Ministry of Health with 900 hospitals participating.

Dr. Mark Sobsey is a Kenan Distinguished Professor of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, specializing in Environmental Health Microbiology and Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in the Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He received a B.S. in Biology (1965) and a M.S. in Hygiene (1967) from the University of Pittsburgh, Pa. and a Ph.D. in Environmental Health Sciences from the School of Public Health, University of California at Berkeley (1971). This was followed by a post-doctoral position (1971), instructorship (1972) and assistant professorship (1973) in the Department of Virology and Epidemiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas. He joined the faculty at UNC-CH in 1974 as an assistant professor.

Professor Sobsey’s research, teaching and service encompass the detection, characterization, occurrence, environmental survival/transport/fate, treatment, human health effects characterization and risk assessment of viruses, bacteria and parasites of public health concern in water, wastewater, biosolids, soil, air and food for the prevention and control of water-, food- and excreta-borne disease. His most recent research focuses on household water treatment for improved water quality and health, appropriate microbial detection technologies for water, and wastewater reuse and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria in the environment associated with fecal waste sources.

My research aims to increase understanding of the basic biology of antibacterial drug action and resistance. In the 1990s my team identified the mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance in food borne bacteria (e.g. Salmonella, Campylobacter) and those that infect the respiratory tract (e.g. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pneumoniae). In the 2000s, we then showed that clinically relevant multi-drug resistance (MDR)in bacteria isolated from people that failed antibiotic treatment was mediated by proteins that efflux (export) antibiotics from bacterial cells. My current research focuses on understanding mechanisms of antibiotic resistance as a basis for drug discovery and includes (1) regulation (switching on and off) of the expression of multidrug efflux pumps, (2) understanding the relationship between multi-drug efflux and virulence, and (3) furthering understanding of the mechanism of transfer of plasmids (mobile genetic elements) between bacteria. I have been an expert advisor to the WHO and the FDA (fluoroquinolone resistance) on antibiotic resistance, a member of the UK Food Standards Agency Advisory Committee on the Microbiology Safety of Food and member of numerous other grant and advisory committees. As the BSAC Chair of Public Engagement I am the Director of Antibiotic Action, a UK-led global initiative to raise awareness of the need for new treatments for bacterial infections. In this role I work with the UK Department of Health, the Shadow Minister for Health and the Chief Medical Officer, as well as Public Health England, governmental policy makers, leading medical charities and related organisations.

I obtained a Master in French Literature in 1977 at the University of Paris IV Sorbonne (France). I have been teaching French Literature in a secondary school in Saint Omer (France) from 1979 until 1999. I got an “Agregation de Lettres Modernes” in 1989. During this period I developed a special interest on children media literacy and obtained a PHD (cum Laude) in media and journalism studies in 1992 from Ecole Normale Supérieure (Fontenay-aux-Roses). My thesis was on the coverage of the war in the Gulf on CNN and two French TV channels. I have been involved in the researches and seminars of CEMS (Centre d’étude des Mouvements Sociaux, now Institut Marcel Mauss at Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris) about the constitution of public events and public problems. I have been a Lecturer in journalism studies at Institut Français de Presse (Université Panthéon-Assas, Paris) from 2003 to 2011. I became Senior Lecturer in Communication and Media Studies at Université de la Sorbonne Nouvelle (Paris), were I was appointed full time Professor in 2011. I have been assistant head of department from 2011 to 2012, and I directed the department of distant learning (ENEAD) from 2012 until June 2014. I am directing a research team (ERCOMES). I am also Associate Professor at Ecole Supérieur des telecommunications (Telecom-Paristech) and a member of la Société Française des Sciences de l’Information et de la Communication (SFIC) and of the European Communication Research and Education Association (ECREA) I am the author of two books (Le Temps des Evénements Médiatiques, Ina de Boeck, Bruxelles, 2003, and L’Evénement et les Médias, Editions des Archives Contemporaines, Paris, 2011) and the author or co-author of 33 publications.

MD, PhD; specialist in Internal Medicine. Expert degree in Epidemiology and Clinical Research. Professor of Medicine, Universidad de Sevilla. Head of Infectious Diseases Division at Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena. Scientific coordinator of the Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI). President-Elect, European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID). Author of more than 230 peer-reviewed articles.

Gunnar Skov Simonsen MD, PhD (born 1965) is Professor of Clinical Microbiology at the University of Tromsø and Director of the Department of Microbiology and Infection Control at the University Hospital of North Norway in Tromsø, Norway. He is also in charge of NORM – The Norwegian Organization for Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance and editor of the yearly report on antibiotic consumption and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among humans and animals in Norway (NORM / NORM-VET). His research interests are within molecular epidemiology of AMR as well as population-based studies of host-microbe interactions in bacterial colonization and infection. He has co-authored more than 70 papers in international peer-reviewed scientific journals.

Simonsen has previously served as Medical Officer at WHO HQ in Geneva (2002 – 2003) working with surveillance issues and implementation of the WHO Global Strategy for Containment of Antimicrobial Resistance. Since 2003 he has regularly contributed at WHO consultations at regional and global levels. He has been involved in surveillance activities in North-Western Russia and is presently enganged in a project for AMR-related capacity building in education and health services in Malawi and Mozambique. Within Europe, Simonsen is the Norwegian National Focal Point for AMR at the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) as well as member of the Coordination Group for the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net). He worked 2012-2013 with the WHONET group at the WHO Collaborating Center for Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance at Brigham and Women´s Hospital / Harvard Medical School in Boston (USA).

Prof. Bruno Gonzalez-Zorn is Professor at the Complutense University in Madrid. He gained his DVM in 1996 and his european PhD in 2001. After his Postdoc at the Pasteur Institute in Paris he received a Ramon y Cajal tenure-track contract from the Spanish Ministry ofScience to return to Spain. Currently he leads a group working on molecularmicrobiology and the ecology of antimicrobial resistance in Madrid. His research interests focus on the role and function of small plasmids in antimicrobial resistance, the bacterial SOS-response and the 16S rRNA methyltranferases in pathogenic bacteria. In 2011 he was awarded the bianual Jaime Ferran Award from the Spanish Society for Microbiology.

Athanassios Tsakris graduated as an MD from the Medical School of University of Athens, Greece and completed his training in Medical Microbiology at North Middlesex Hospital, London and the Central Public Health Laboratory, London. He received his PhD degree from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Diseases, University of London. He is a Fellow in Medical Microbiology and Virology at the Royal College of Pathologists, London. He has spent sabbatical leaves and served as visiting Professor in the Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Prof Tsakris is currently Professor and Head of the Department of Microbiology at the Medical School, University of Athens, Greece. He teaches various undergraduate and postgraduate academic courses at the University of Athens. He is member of the Executive Board of the Hellenic Center for Disease Control and Prevention and National representative of the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net). His major interests include surveillance of multidrug-resistant Gram-negatives, development of phenotypic methods for the detection of carbapenemases, infection control activities and molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance. He is an evaluator of grant applications for several organizations worldwide. Prof Tsakris is an author of more than 250 peer-reviewed research articles. He also serves as co-editor or on the editorial boards of several major antimicrobial research/microbiology journals.

Paul Williams is currently Professor of Molecular Microbiology in the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences at the University of Nottingham U.K. He graduated in pharmacy in 1979 prior to undertaking a Ph.D in microbiology (1984). In 1996 he was appointed to the Directorship of the Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation until 2008 when he became Head of the School of Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham.

His research interests focus primarily on the regulation of gene expression through cell-cell communication (quorum sensing) in pathogenic bacteria and the development of novel anti-infective agents and bacterial attachment resistant polymers. He has published some 280 research papers, reviews and book chapters and patents. For his quorum sensing research he was awarded the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain Conference Science Medal (1992), Pfizer prize in Pharmaceutical Sciences (1994) and the Society for General Microbiology Colworth Prize Lecture in 2007.

Prof. Williams has served on the editorial/advisory boards of Environmental Microbiology, Journal of Bacteriology Microbiology, FEMS Microbiology Letters, Biofilms, International Journal of Medical Microbiology and Molecular Microbiology. He has also been a member of the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council U.K. (Plants and Microbes Committee), the Medical Research Council U.K. Advisory Board, the Medical Research Council U.K. College of Experts, the Infection Group of the Society for General Microbiology and was a specialist advisor for the UK RAE2008 research selectivity exercise.

Timothy Walsh is currently Professor of Medical Microbiology and Antibiotic Resistance at Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, and leads an active research in antibiotic resistance. Previously, he was a Reader in Medical Microbiology at the University of Bristol following several postdoctoral research positions in London, UK.

After obtaining a BSc in Applied Laboratory Science and a Post Graduate Diploma of Immunology/Microbiology at the University of Tasmania in Australia, Prof. Walsh earned his PhD in Molecular Microbiology at the University of Bristol.  He is in the process of obtaining his MRCPath (London) and DSc (Australia). Prof. Walsh is a member of the Australian Society of Microbiology, Society for General Microbiology (UK), British Society of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, American Society of Microbiology and European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

Prof. Walsh’s research is focused on unusual mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance and how they are mobilized into the clinical sector and spread once established.  He has published and presented over 400 papers, in particular on the characterization of β-lactamases within Gram-negative bacteria. His interests include designing and evaluating new antimicrobials as well as blending molecular and clinical epidemiology in large scale studies in developing countries. His research has been funded by the Wellcome Trust, European Union, British Society of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, BBSRC, Merck etc.  He is advisory on many EC steering groups and the WHO, and is a consultant to the Chinese CDC.

Arnfinn Sundsfjord (1958) graduated as MD (1983) and in clinical microbiology (1991), received his PhD (1994), and was appointed professor in microbiology (2001) at the University of Tromsø/Unversity Hospital of North-Norway. He has spent sabbatical leaves in several European research institutions including Institute Pasteur, Paris (2000-1). He established and has chaired the National Reference Centre for Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance since 2001. He co-/chaired the National Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Committee (1998-2012).

His research activities have targeted our understanding of mechanisms in transmission and persistence of antimicrobial resistance determinants in animals and humans, the development and evaluation of pheno- and genotypic methods for detection of antimicrobial resistance and development of new antimicrobial drugs.

Birgitta Henriques Normark is professor in Clinical microbiology at Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University hospital, as well as head physician at the Swedish Institute for Communicable Diseases (SMI). She has been employed by SMI since more than 20 years and has acted as Department head and Section head. She received a 5 year research position (50%) in Clinical experimental research from the Royal Academy of Sciences in Sweden (KVA) year 2005. In 2008 she got a Research position from the Swedish Research Council 50% in Clinical bacteriology and in 2008 a Strategic Professor position at the Karolinska Institutet.

Her research focuses on epidemiology, antibiotic resistance and host-microbe interactions in bacterial infections with special focus on pneumococcal epidemicity, molecular epidemiology, and mechanisms of invasive disease, innate immunity and host-microbe interactions determining disease outcome. The research has been published in 117 publications of which 89 are original peer reviewed articles. She has been the main supervisor of 12 PhD thesis as well as co-supervisor to 5 thesis. She has been invited speaker/chair at more than 70 international/ national meetings and is ad hoc reviewer for several international peer-reviewed journals. She is an evaluator of grant applications sent to several organizations worldwide and has a large network in both academia and industry and has participated/participate in several EU networks/projects and was the Coordinator of the EU network PREVIS within the 6th framework. She is also a board member of the Swedish Research Council, Medicine and Health.

Herman Goossens was born in 1957. He graduated as a Medical Doctor (1982) and Clinical Microbiologist (1988), and received his Ph.D. in Medical Microbiology (1990) from the Free University of Brussels. He received research fellowships of the University of Geneva (1985-86), the University of Tokyo (1987), and the University of Utrecht (1988).

He is a professor of Medical Microbiology at the University of Antwerp in Belgium since 1992 and founded the research Laboratory of Medical Microbiology at the University of Antwerp in 1994. He is the director of the Laboratory of Clinical Pathology of the University Hospital Antwerp since 1998. He was also a professor of Medical Microbiology at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands between 2000 and 2008.

Herman Goossens received several honours and awards, including the American APUA (Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics) award in 2006. He was a Fellow of the British Council in 1987 and 1988. Herman Goossens published more than 400 full papers in peer-reviewed scientific journals and he published more than 25 chapters in textbooks. He is the founder and Vice-Chair of the Belgian Antibiotic Policy Co-ordination Committee (BAPCOC) and he founded the network of Belgian Centres for Molecular Diagnostics (CMD), both by Royal Decree. He chaired the WHO Conference on the Use of Quinolones in Food Animals and Potential Impact on Human Health in Geneva (1998).

Herman Goossens was a member of the ICAAC Program Committee (2001 – 2005) and of the ECCMID Programme Committee (2005 – 2008). He coordinates several European projects funded by DG Research, DG SANCO, IMI and ECDC, such as the European Surveillance of Antibiotic Consumption (ESAC) project, Genomics to Combat Resistance against Antibiotics in Community-acquired LRTI in Europe (GRACE) and Development of RApid Point-of-care test Platforms for Infectious Diseases (RAPP-ID).

Herman Goossens was the organiser of the European Conference on Antibiotic Use in 2001 on behalf of the Belgian EU Presidency, of the International Workshop on Educational Campaigns regarding antibiotic resistance in 2004, of the European Workshop on indicators for quality prescribing in primary care in 2005, and of the European Conference on Health Care Associated Infections and Antibiotic Use in 2010 on behalf of the Belgian EU Presidency.

He is a member of the WHO Advisory Group on Integrated Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (WHO-AGISAR). He is the initiator of the annual European Antibiotic Resistance Day (EAAD) and chairs the Technical Advisory Committee at ECDC for EAAD. Herman Goossens was elected chair of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Joint Programming Initiative on Antimicrobial Resistance. His is/was member of the editorial board of several journals, including Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Lancet Infectious Diseases, Clinical Microbiology & Infection and Eurosurveillance.

Herman Goossens received the Methusalem award of the Flemish government in 2008 for a period of 7 years. His main fields of research are antibiotic use and resistance, respiratory tract infections (mainly VAP), developing rapid and point-of-care diagnostic tests, and biofilms. With his translational research, he seeks to enhance the standard of healthcare quality, public health and professional standards for the good of the public in large. He is a popular resource person and opinion leader, much sought after by local and international media for views on matters related to public health and infectious diseases.

Hajo Grundmann, born in 1955, studied Sinology, Nursing and Human Medicine at the Universities of Bochum and Freiburg, Germany. He specialised in Clinical Tropical Medicine, Medical Microbiology and Hygiene & Environmental Medicine and received his PhD at the University of Freiburg, Germany and an MSc in Epidemiology of Communicable Diseases at the London School of Hygiene.

He worked clinically as a medical doctor at university hospitals inFreiburg, Berlin, and Nottingham and carried out extensive field studies in Taiwan,Venezuela and Tanzania. For eight years, he was the Project Leader of the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS) funded by the European Commission and the Dutch Ministry of Health at the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) were he is still in charge of the Antimicrobial Resistance and Health Care Associated Infections Programme.

Currently, he is the Chair for Infectious Diseases Epidemiology at the University of Groningen where he also holds his clinical appointment. He is also Special Professor at the University of Nottingham, UK and Co-Lead for the 3rd Challenge on Patient Safety of WHO’s Global Alliance on Patient Safety. He is scientific advisor to ReAct –Action on antibiotic resistance. His major research interests are the molecular evolution, epidemiology, population dynamics and health impact of emerging antimicrobial resistance and health care associated infections.

Niels Frimodt-Møller (1949) graduated as MD in 1975 and specialized in clinical microbiology in 1986. His medical doctoral thesis was defended in 1988. He is an adjunct professor in clinical microbiology at Aarhus University, Denmark, and works as a senior consultant at the dept. of clinical microbiology, Hvidovre Hospital in Copenhagen. His research activities have focused on antibiotics in vitro and in vivo, both with experimental animal models and clinical studies. In the later years his interest has been focused on antibiotic resistance issues, both studying resistance mechanisms and the effect of antibiotics on resistant bacteria in vivo. He has collaborated on a number of EU FP-research programmes.

The research has been published in over 300 peer reviewed papers and more than 400 congress abstracts, posters and oral presentations. He has supervised more than 20 doctoral theses or PhD´s, and he has been external reviewer of more than 30 PhDs in Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Lithuania. He has been involved also in monitoring antibiotic resistance and antibiotic consumption both in Denmark and in Europe.

He was a cofounder of the Danish monitoring system, DANMAP, and has represented Denmark in various antibiotic resistance programmes and advisory groups in the EU, ECDC and ESCMID. He is a present board member at the Danish National Research Foundation, the Danish National Antibiotic Board under the Ministry of Health and several other funding and advisory boards.

Stephan Harbarth, MD, MS, is an associate professor and hospital epidemiologist at Geneva University Hospitals in Geneva, Switzerland. He also serves as senior attending physician in geriatric and general infectious diseases.

Dr Harbarth earned his medical degree from Ludwig-Maximilians-University in Munich, Germany, and completed his residency in internal medicine and tropical medicine at Munich University Hospitals. After serving as a clinical fellow in the Infectious Diseases Division and Infection Control Program in the Department of Internal Medicine at Geneva University Hospitals, Dr Harbarth completed his master’s degree in epidemiology at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He is board certified in infectious diseases.

Dr Harbarth’s work has garnered several awards, including the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy Young Investigator Award from the American Society for Microbiology in 2003, the Young Investigator Award from the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases in 2006, the Swiss Society for Infectious Diseases Award for epidemiological research in 2008, and the Society of Healthcare Epidemiology of America Investigator Award in 2011.

A prolific author, Dr Harbarth has written or coauthored more than 200 scientific publications and is co-editor of several peer-reviewed journals. He is member of many international societies, working groups, advisory boards and tasks forces, including WHO and ECDC.

Fernando Baquero was born in Madrid in 1941. He graduated in Medicine and Surgery in the Complutensis University in Madrid (1965), and received his Ph.D. in Medical Microbiology (1973) from the Autonomous University of Madrid. He was trained in clinical microbiology at the National Hospital for Infectious Diseases en Madrid, and later at Max von Pettenkofer Institute in Munich (1970), the Pasteur Institute in Paris (1973-74), and the Department of Biology at Emory University (1995).

He founded and directed the Laboratory of Microbiology at La Paz University Hospital in Madrid, and later the Department of Microbiology at the Ramón y Cajal University Hospital (1977-2008); from 2008 to date, he is Research Professor in Microbial Evolution and Scientific Director of the Ramón y Cajal Health Research Institute (IRYCIS). He is Senior Scientist in Evolutionary Biology at the Center for Astrobiology (CAB, INTA-NASA associated) of the Spanish Research Council. He served as President of the Spanish Society of Microbiology, and Scientific Secretary of the Spanish Society for Chemotherapy.

Founder and First President of the Spanish Programme for Training and Accreditation in the Specialty of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology. Founder member of APUA (Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics), he also served as Member of the ICAAC Programme Committee, Member of EARSS Scientific Committee, President of the ESCMID Group for Surveillance if Antimicrobial Resistance, and has been President of the European Congress for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases; currently Member of the Scientific Advisory Board of the EC Joint Programming Initiative on Antimicrobial Resistance.

He received several international honors and awards, including the Excellence Awards of the American ASM-ICAAC, Award of Excellence of European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Garrod Medal of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Descartes Award of the EU Commission for International Collaborative Research, Excellence Award of the Spanish Society of Microbiology, Lilly Foundation Award to Distinguished Scientific Carrier, and Honor Member of the Spanish Society for Evolutionary Biology.

He is Member of the American Academy of Microbiology, the European Academy for Microbiology, the European Academy for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, and the Iberoamerican Academy for Evolutionary Biology.

His research interests focus on the biochemistry, genetics, population biology, epidemiology, ecology, and evolutionary biology of antibiotic resistance and virulence, and particularly on the multi-level processes influencing selection of resistant microbes, and the possibilities of applying control interventions and therapies. On these and related topics, he published more than 450 full papers in peer-reviewed scientific journals and he is included in the ISI-WOK list of most quoted scientists of the world in the field of Microbiology. As side-interests, he has also published in the fields of philosophy of science, particularly in epistemology of complex biological systems.

Yehuda Carmeli, MD, MPH, professor of medicine, Tel Aviv University, is the Head of the Israeli National Center for Antibiotic Resistance, and the chief of the Division of Epidemiology at the Tel Aviv Medical Center, in Tel Aviv, Israel. He is also on the research staff at the Division of Infectious Diseases, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. Dr. Carmeli received his MD degree from Ben Gurion University, Israel and his MPH degree at Harvard School of Public Health. He served his residency at Hadassah Medical Center, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, and then served as a fellow in Medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. Dr. Carmeli completed his fellowship in Infectious Diseases at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA. His primary research interest is the epidemiology of resistance to antibiotics. Dr. Carmeli is the author of over 200 research articles, the recipient of multiple research grants and awards, and member of editorial board of major journals in the fields of Infectious Diseases and antibiotic research.

Marc Bonten (1964) studied Medicine at the University of Maastricht (1991), where he also received his PhD in 1994. In 2003 he was appointed professor of molecular epidemiology of infectious diseases. He is head of the department of Medical Microbiology (since 2008) and of the research theme Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases at the Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, both at the University Medical Center Utrecht.

I obtained my md in 1976 (Medical School of Tours University (Tours, France) and my ph.d. in microbiology in 1986 at the Pharmacy School of University of Paris 11 (Chatenay-Malabry, France). I am board certified in paediatrics, tropical medicine and microbiology. I have been further trained in epidemiology at the CDC (Atlanta, GA) and have been a research fellow at SUNY (Brooklyn, NY). From 1979 to 1996 I worked as clinical microbiologist at the Institut Gustave-Roussy, the major french cancer research and treatment centre. I was appointed professor of microbiology at the Pharmacy School of University of Paris 11 (Chatenay-Malabry) from 1988 to 1996. Since 1996 I am full professor of microbiology at University of Paris 7 Medical School and Head of the bacteriology laboratory of Bichat-Claude Bernard University Hospital, a major referral centre in infectious diseases in the Paris area. The laboratory has hosted the French national reference center for bacterial resistance in commensal flora from 2004 to 2012. I serve as expert witness at the national highest court of appeal, and am a member of the French Scientific Council for Defence and have been a member of the Scientific Council for National Defence from 2002 to 2012. I am a member of the WHO/AGISAR group since 2008. My research focuses on the role of commensal microbiota in the evolution of bacterial resistance to antibiotics and on how these microbiota cause nosocomial and community-acquired infections. I am author or co-author of more than 130 pubmed publications and I published a book for the general public in collaboration with the anthropologist Michel Tibon-cornillot (Le triomphe des bactéries: La fin des antibiotiques? [The Triumph of Bacteria: The End of Antibiotics?] Maxmilo Editions Paris 2007). I am inventor of several patents, some of which serve as scientific basis for a biotech company (Davolterra) created under the hospices of the French law for innovation and research and developing anti-bacterial resistance products currently in pre-clinical stage.